LOTOS-EUROS is an open-source chemical transport model (CTM) that is used for a wide range of applications supporting scientific research, regulatory programmes and air quality forecasts.
Originally designed to investigate atmospheric ozone circulation, today's LOTOS-EUROS:
- efficiently simulates air quality and deposition on regional and sub-regional scales;
- covers a wide range of inert and chemically active constituents including ozone, NO2, inorganic and organic PM2.5 and PM10;
- has a long-standing record of data assimilation for satellite data and ground measurements;
- uses a labelling technique for accurate source apportionment;
- benefits from in-house cooperation with emission experts for accurate emission input and modelling;
- analyses of concentrations, deposition and related health indicators for assessment studies;
- operational air quality forecasts;
- climate scenarios for the study of air quality and input to integrative climate models.
LOTOS-EUROS calculates the formation and dispersion of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, organic and elemental carbon, mineral dust, sea spray, secondary aerosols and heavy metals across Europe. The default model resolution is approximately 25 x 25 km2 but it is possible to zoom in on urban and industrial areas. The model links anthropogenic and biogenic emissions with the occurrence of specific concentrations and deposition. Its vertical layer structure makes it very efficient in use.
LOTOS and EUROS were developed in the 1990s by the Dutch organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO and The Environmental Assessment Agency of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM/MNP) and have been used as models for the study of the atmospheric distribution of photo-oxidants. The two models were combined in 2004 to give LOTOS-EUROS version 1.0, which has been used by TNO, RIVM and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute KNMI. The open-source 2.0 version of the model was released in 2016 to extend the community of users.
Deposition and nitrogen budget
The deposition of acidifying and eutrophying components and crop damage due to ozone fluxes are still a major issue in the field of atmospheric pollution.
Scenarios and impacts
LOTOS-EUROS has been used for a wide variety of emission scenario studies, including the impact of emission timing and land use changes (plantation of biomass).